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MS-DOS 7 :   The Windows™ 95/98 Disk Operating System
ALL DOS 7 External Programs with their built-in helps are listed here. Some may have links to guide pages on using them (see, for example, DEBUG).

The MS-DOS 7  External Commands
(Programs in the Windir\COMMAND folder)


Table of Contents (the Programs)

  attrib   choice   command   debug   deltree   diskcopy   doskey   edit   extract   fc   fdisk   find   format   keyb   label   mem   mode   more   mscdex   nlsfunc   qbasic   scandisk   sort   start   subst   sys   xcopy   xcopy32

  attrib.exe      (File) Attributes
--------
Displays or changes file attributes.

ATTRIB 
 [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S]

  +   Sets an attribute.
  -   Clears an attribute.
  R   Read-only file attribute.
  A   Archive file attribute.
  S   System file attribute.
  H   Hidden file attribute.
  /S  Processes files in all directories in the specified path.


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  choice.com      (Used in BATCH files)
--------
Waits for the user to choose one of a set of choices.

CHOICE [/C[:]choices] [/N] [/S] [/T[:]c,nn] [text]

/C[:]choices Specifies allowable keys. Default is YN
/N           Do not display choices and ? at end of prompt string.
/S           Treat choice keys as case sensitive.
/T[:]c,nn    Default choice to c after nn seconds
text         Prompt string to display

ERRORLEVEL is set to offset of key user presses in choices.


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 command.com    COMMAND.COM (really an .EXE)
--------
Starts a new copy of the Windows Command Interpreter.

COMMAND [[drive:]path] [device] [/E:nnnnn] [/L:nnnn] [/U:nnn] [/P] [/MSG]
                       [/LOW] [/Y [/[C|K] command]]
 [drive:]path   Specifies the directory containing COMMAND.COM.
  device        Specifies the device to use for command input and output.
  /E:nnnnn      Sets the initial environment size to nnnnn bytes.
                (nnnnn should be between 256 and 32,768).
  /L:nnnn       Specifies internal buffers length (requires /P as well).
                (nnnn should be between 128 and 1,024).
  /U:nnn        Specifies the input buffer length (requires /P as well).
                (nnn should be between 128 and 255).
  /P            Makes the new Command Interpreter permanent (can't exit).
  /MSG          Stores all error messages in memory (requires /P as well).
  /LOW          Forces COMMAND to keep its resident data in low memory.
  /Y            Steps through the batch program specified by /C or /K.
  /C command    Executes the specified command and returns.
  /K command    Executes the specified command and continues running.


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   debug.exe    More Info here: DEBUG
--------
Runs Debug, a program testing and editing tool.

DEBUG [[drive:][path]filename [testfile-parameters]]

  [drive:][path]filename  Specifies the file you want to test.
  testfile-parameters     Specifies command-line information required by
                          the file you want to test.

After Debug starts, type ? to display a list of debugging commands.


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 deltree.exe      Delete Tree (all files)
--------
Deletes a directory and all the subdirectories and files in it.

To delete one or more files and directories:
DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path [[drive:]path[...]]

  /Y              Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to delete
                  the subdirectory.
  [drive:]path    Specifies the name of the directory you want to delete.

Note: Use DELTREE cautiously. Every file and subdirectory within the
specified directory will be deleted.


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diskcopy.com      Copy Floppy Disks
--------
Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.

DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M]

  /1   Copies only the first side of the disk.
  /V   Verifies that the information is copied correctly.
  /M   Force multi-pass copy using memory only.

The two floppy disks must be the same type.
You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2.


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  doskey.com
--------
Edits command lines, recalls command lines, and creates macros

DOSKEY [/switch ...] [macroname=[text]]

  /BUFSIZE:size Sets size of macro and command buffer        (default:512)
  /ECHO:on|off  Enables/disables echo of macro expansions     (default:on)
  /FILE:file    Specifies file containing a list of macros
  /HISTORY      Displays all commands stored in memory
  /INSERT       Inserts new characters into line when typing
  /KEYSIZE:size Sets size of keyboard type-ahead buffer       (default:15)
  /LINE:size    Sets maximum size of line edit buffer        (default:128)
  /MACROS       Displays all DOSKey macros
  /OVERSTRIKE   Overwrites new characters onto line when typing  (default)
  /REINSTALL    Installs a new copy of DOSKey
  macroname     Specifies a name for a macro you create
  text          Specifies commands you want to assign to the macro

  UP,DOWN arrows recall commands
      Esc clears current command
       F7 displays command history
   Alt+F7 clears command history
[chars]F8 searches for command beginning with [chars]
       F9 selects a command by number
  Alt+F10 clears macro definitions

The following are special codes you can use in DOSKey macro definitions:

  $T     Command separator: allows multiple commands in a macro.

  $1-$9  Batch parameters: equivalent to %1-%9 in batch programs.

  $*     Symbol replaced by everything following macro name on the
         command line.


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    edit.com
--------
MS-DOS Editor   Version 2.0.026

EDIT [/B] [/H] [/R] [/S] [/] [/?] [file(s)]

  /B       - Forces monochrome mode.

  /H       - Displays the maximum number of lines possible for your
             hardware.

  /R       - Load file(s) in read-only mode.

  /S       - Forces the use of short filenames.

  /   - Load binary file(s), wrapping lines to  characters
             wide.
  /?       - Displays this help screen.

  [file]   - Specifies initial files(s) to load.  Wildcards and
             multiple filespecs can be given.


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 extract.exe    (Microsoft .CAB files)
--------
Microsoft (R) Diamond Extraction Tool - Version (16) 1.00.0602 (07/14/97)

EXTRACT [/Y] [/A] [/D | /E] [/L dir] cabinet [filename ...]
EXTRACT [/Y] source [newname]
EXTRACT [/Y] /C source destination

  cabinet  - Cabinet file (contains two or more files).
  filename - Name of the file to extract from the cabinet.
             Wild cards and multiple filenames (separated by
             blanks) may be used.

  source   - Compressed file (a cabinet with only one file).
  newname  - New filename to give the extracted file.
             If not supplied, the original name is used.

  /A         Process ALL cabinets.  Follows cabinet chain
             starting in first cabinet mentioned.
  /C         Copy source file to destination (to copy from DMF disks).
  /D         Display cabinet directory (use with filename to avoid
             extract).
  /E         Extract (use instead of *.* to extract all files).
  /L dir     Location to place extracted files (default is current
             directory).
  /Y         Do not prompt before overwriting an existing file.


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      fc.exe      File Compare
--------
Compares two files or sets of files and displays the differences between
them.

FC [/A] [/C] [/L] [/LBn] [/N] [/T] [/W] [/nnnn] [drive1:][path1]filename1
  [drive2:][path2]filename2
FC /B [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2

  /A     Displays only first and last lines for each set of differences.
  /B     Performs a binary comparison.
  /C     Disregards the case of letters.
  /L     Compares files as ASCII text.
  /LBn   Sets the maximum consecutive mismatches to the specified number
         of lines.
  /N     Displays the line numbers on an ASCII comparison.
  /T     Does not expand tabs to spaces.
  /W     Compresses white space (tabs and spaces) for comparison.
  /nnnn  Specifies the number of consecutive lines that must match after
         a mismatch.


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   fdisk.exe   Partition (Hard) Disks
--------
Configures a hard disk for use with MS-DOS and Windows 95/98/2000.

FDISK [/STATUS] /X

  /STATUS   Displays partition information.
  /X        Ignores extended disk-access support. Use this switch if
            you receive disk access or stack overflow messages.


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    find.exe
--------
Searches for a text string in a file or files.

FIND [/V] [/C] [/N] [/I] "string" [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]]

  /V        Displays all lines NOT containing the specified string.
  /C        Displays only the count of lines containing the string.
  /N        Displays line numbers with the displayed lines.
  /I        Ignores the case of characters when searching for the
            string.
  "string"  Specifies the text string to find.
  [drive:][path]filename
            Specifies a file or files to search.

 If a pathname is not specified, FIND searches the text typed at the
 prompt or piped from another command.


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  format.com
--------
Formats a disk for use with MS-DOS.

FORMAT drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/F:size] [/B | /S] [/C]
FORMAT drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/T:tracks /N:sectors] [/B | /S] [/C]
FORMAT drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/1] [/4] [/B | /S] [/C]
FORMAT drive: [/Q] [/1] [/4] [/8] [/B | /S] [/C]

  /V[:label]  Specifies the volume label.
  /Q          Performs a quick format.
  /F:size     Specifies the size of the floppy disk to format (such
              as 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88).
  /B          Allocates space on the formatted disk for system files.
  /S          Copies system files to the formatted disk.
  /T:tracks   Specifies the number of tracks per disk side.
  /N:sectors  Specifies the number of sectors per track.
  /1          Formats a single side of a floppy disk.
  /4          Formats a 5.25-inch 360K floppy disk in a high-density
              drive.
  /8          Formats eight sectors per track.
  /C          Tests clusters that are currently marked "bad."


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    keyb.com
--------
Configures a keyboard for a specific language.

KEYB [xx[,[yyy][,[drive:][path]filename]]] [/E] [/ID:nnn]

  xx                 Specifies a two-letter keyboard code.
  yyy                Specifies the code page for the character set.

  [drive:][path]filename  Specifies the keyboard definition file.

  /E                 Specifies that an enhanced keyboard is installed.
  /ID:nnn            Specifies the keyboard in use.


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   label.exe
--------
Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.

LABEL [drive:][label]


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     mem.exe             Memory
--------
Displays the amount of used and free memory in your system.

MEM [/CLASSIFY | /DEBUG | /FREE | /MODULE modulename] [/PAGE]

  /CLASSIFY or /C  Classifies programs by memory usage. Lists the size
                   of programs, provides a summary of memory in use,
                   and lists largest memory block available.

  /DEBUG or /D     Displays status of all modules in memory, internal
                   drivers, and other information.

  /FREE or /F      Displays information about the amount of free memory
                   left in both conventional and upper memory.

  /MODULE or /M    Displays a detailed listing of a module's memory use.
                   This option must be followed by the name of a module,
                   optionally separated from /M by a colon.

  /PAGE or /P      Pauses after each screenful of information.


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    mode.com
--------
Configures system devices.

Printer port:      MODE LPTn[:] [COLS=c] [LINES=l] [RETRY=r]
Serial port:       MODE COMm[:] [BAUD=b] [PARITY=p] [DATA=d] [STOP=s] 
                                [RETRY=r]
Device Status:     MODE [device] [/STATUS]
Redirect printing: MODE LPTn[:]=COMm[:]
Prepare code page: MODE device CP PREPARE=((yyy[...]) 
                                               [drive:][path]filename)
Select code page:  MODE device CP SELECT=yyy
Refresh code page: MODE device CP REFRESH
Code page status:  MODE device CP [/STATUS]
Display mode:      MODE [display-adapter][,n]
                   MODE CON[:] [COLS=c] [LINES=n]
Typematic rate:    MODE CON[:] [RATE=r DELAY=d]


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    more.com
--------
Displays output one screen at a time.

MORE [drive:][path]filename
MORE < [drive:][path]filename
command-name | MORE [drive:][path][filename]

  [drive:][path]filename  Specifies file(s) to display one screen at
                          a time.
  command-name            Specifies a command whose output will be
                          displayed.


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  mscdex.exe        CD-ROM Program
--------
Allows MS-DOS to communicate with CD-ROM drives. (Note: A 'driver'
program for the specific type of CD-ROM drive must be installed
first -- usually listed in the machine's CONFIG.SYS file.)

Usage: MSCDEX [/E/K/S/V] [/D: ... ] [/L:] [/M:]


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 nlsfunc.exe
--------
Loads country-specific information.

NLSFUNC [[drive:][path]filename]

  [drive:][path]filename   Specifies the file containing
                           country-specific information.


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  qbasic.exe      Quick-Basic Interpreter
--------
Starts the MS-DOS QBasic programming environment.

QBASIC [/B] [/EDITOR] [/G] [/H] [/MBF] [/NOHI] 
                                       [[/RUN] [drive:][path]filename]

  /B          Allows use of a monochrome monitor with a color graphics
              card.

  /EDITOR     Starts the MS-DOS Editor.

  /G          Provides the fastest update of a CGA screen.

  /H          Displays the maximum number of lines possible for your
              hardware.

  /MBF        Converts the built-in functions MKS$, MKD$, CVS, and CVD
              to MKSMBF$, MKDMBF$, CVSMBF, and CVDMBF, respectively.

  /NOHI       Allows the use of a monitor without high-intensity support.

  /RUN        Runs the specified Basic program before displaying it.

  [[drive:][path]filename] Specifies the program file to load or run.


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scandisk.exe
--------
SCANDISK [drive:] [/a] [/n] [/p]

drive:	to specify the drive(s) you want to check.

/a	to check all your local, nonremovable hard disks.

/n	to start and close ScanDisk automatically.

/p	to prevent ScanDisk from correcting any errors it finds.

Examples:
========
To check drive D and start and close ScanDisk automatically, the
following command might be used:

      c:\windows\scandisk.exe d: /n

To check all nonremovable hard disks but prevent ScanDisk from
correcting any errors it finds, this command could be used:

      c:\windows\scandisk.exe /a /p


[NOTE: Scandskw.exe is the WINDOWS 9x/Me version of the DOS7
       ScanDisk.]

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    sort.exe
--------
Sorts input and writes results to the screen, a file, or another device.

SORT [/R] [/+n] [[drive1:][path1]filename1] [> [drive2:][path2]filename2]
[command |] SORT [/R] [/+n] [> [drive2:][path2]filename2]

  /R                         Reverses the sort order; that is, sorts
                             Z to A, then 9 to 0.
  /+n                        Sorts the file according to characters in
                             column n.
  [drive1:][path1]filename1  Specifies file(s) to be sorted.
  [drive2:][path2]filename2  Specifies a file where the sorted input is
                             to be stored.
  command                    Specifies a command whose output is to be
                             sorted.


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   start.exe      Start (Windows Program)
--------
Runs a Windows program or an MS-DOS program.

START [options] program [arg...]
START [options] document.ext

/m[inimized] Run the new program minimized (in the background).

/max[imized] Run the new program maximized (in the foreground).

/r[estored]  Run the new program restored (in the foreground).
             [This is the default.]

/w[ait]      Does not return until the other program exits.


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   subst.exe         Substitute
--------
Associates a path with a drive letter.

SUBST [drive1: [drive2:]path]
SUBST drive1: /D

  drive1:        Specifies a virtual drive to which you want to assign
                   a path.
  [drive2:]path  Specifies a physical drive and path you want to assign
                   to a virtual drive.
  /D             Deletes a substituted (virtual) drive.

Type SUBST with no parameters to display a list of current virtual
  drives.


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     sys.com      (Copy) System Files
--------
Copies MS-DOS system files and command interpreter to a disk you specify.

SYS [drive1:][path] drive2:

  [drive1:][path] Specifies the location of the system files.
   drive2:        Specifies the drive the files are to be copied to.


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   xcopy.exe
--------
Copies files and directory trees.

XCOPY source [destination] [/A | /M] [/D[:date]] [/P] [/S [/E]] [/W]
                           [/C] [/I] [/Q] [/F] [/L] [/H] [/R] [/T] [/U]
                           [/K] [/N]

 source       Specifies the file(s) to copy.
 destination  Specifies the location and/or name of new files.

 /A           Copies files with the archive attribute set,
                doesn't change the attribute.
 /M           Copies files with the archive attribute set,
                turns off the archive attribute.
 /D:date      Copies files changed on or after the specified date.
                If no date is given, copies only those files whose
                source time is newer than the destination time.
 /P           Prompts you before creating each destination file.
 /S           Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.
 /E           Copies directories and subdirectories, including empty
                ones.  Same as /S /E.  May be used to modify /T.
 /W           Prompts you to press a key before copying.
 /C           Continues copying even if errors occur.
 /I           If destination does not exist and copying more than one
                file, assumes that destination must be a directory.
 /Q           Does not display file names while copying.
 /F           Displays full source and destination file names while
                copying.
 /L           Displays files that would be copied.
 /H           Copies hidden and system files also.
 /R           Overwrites read-only files.
 /T           Creates directory structure, but does not copy files.
                Does not include empty directories or subdirectories.
              (/T /E includes empty directories and subdirectories.)

 /U           Updates the files that already exist in destination.
 /K           Copies attributes. Normal Xcopy will reset read-only
                attributes.
 /Y           Overwrites existing files without prompting.
 /-Y          Prompts you before overwriting existing files.
 /N           Copy using the generated short names.

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 xcopy32.exe
--------
Copies files and directory trees.

XCOPY source [destination] [/A | /M] [/D[:date]] [/P] [/S [/E]] [/W]
                           [/C] [/I] [/Q] [/F] [/L] [/H] [/R] [/T] [/U]
                           [/K] [/N]

 source       Specifies the file(s) to copy.
 destination  Specifies the location and/or name of new files.

 /A           Copies files with the archive attribute set,
                doesn't change the attribute.
 /M           Copies files with the archive attribute set,
                turns off the archive attribute.
 /D:date      Copies files changed on or after the specified date.
                If no date is given, copies only those files whose
                source time is newer than the destination time.
 /P           Prompts you before creating each destination file.
 /S           Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.
 /E           Copies directories and subdirectories, including empty
                ones.  Same as /S /E.  May be used to modify /T.
 /W           Prompts you to press a key before copying.
 /C           Continues copying even if errors occur.
 /I           If destination does not exist and copying more than one
                file, assumes that destination must be a directory.
 /Q           Does not display file names while copying.
 /F           Displays full source and destination file names while
                copying.
 /L           Displays files that would be copied.
 /H           Copies hidden and system files also.
 /R           Overwrites read-only files.
 /T           Creates directory structure, but does not copy files.
                Does not include empty directories or subdirectories.
               ( /T /E includes empty directories and subdirectories.)

 /U           Updates the files that already exist in destination.
 /K           Copies attributes. Normal Xcopy will reset read-only
                attributes.
 /Y           Overwrites existing files without prompting.
 /-Y          Prompts you before overwriting existing files.
 /N           Copy using the generated short names.


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