Sponsoring website: Emergency Boot CD

The "Bootstrap" Code  or
BOOTMGR Loader Code
of an NTFS OS Partition
For Microsoft® Windows™ 7 ]

Web Presentation and Text are Copyright © 2015 by Daniel B. Sedory
NOT to be reproduced in any form without Permission of the Author !

You can contact us here if you have any specific questions about this page.



This page examines the second and following sectors of the NTFS Boot Record Code for Windows 7 (NT6.0). A Microsoft® web page refers to these sectors as being part of the “bootstrap code” for an NTFS partition (see reference here). But since the code in the first sector (the Boot Sector) loads all the other sectors into Memory, we are calling these sectors the BOOTMGR Loader section of the NTFS Boot Record. This section is actually the bulk of the whole Boot Record Area. And the bootmgr program which it loads is what makes NTFS volumes both flexible and very confusing for most users: Due to its use of a file called BCD (Boot Configuration Data), which among other things refers to the starting sector of a Windows 7 OS's C: drive! So any changes to the beginning location (and possibly size) of that partition, means that data must also be updated in the Registry at the same time! See our BCD page for an introduction to this file. Our objectives here are to identify the purpose of the bytes in the Data Area (or as many as we can) and the function of the major blocks of code, such as subroutines; not to cover every instruction in these seven full sectors (plus 40 bytes in an 8th) of code and data.
NOTE: From observations, it appears that all Win 7 NTFS Boot Records begin with identical bytes in the BOOTMGR Loader's "Data Area" as we're calling it (see below for more info).

The MBR loads the Win 7 “Boot Sector” into Memory at location 0000:7C00, after which the Boot Sector code then loads the remaining 15 sectors of the Boot Record Area immediately after it. So our Examination of the Code below will be done as if it were already loaded into Memory at 07C0:0200 (or 0000:7E00 or Linear Memory location 0x7E00) and following since that's where the code is actually located when it's executed.

[Note: In order to properly understand this code, one should use an updated debugger, such as Enhanced DEBUG on this page by Vernon C. Brooks (current version, since DEC 2014, is 1.30b); which is also a 32-bit debugger! Or, even set up the BOCHS GUI Debugger with a nice visual display, to step through this code, rather than attempting to rely solely on the old 16-bit MS-DOS DEBUG program. Another very good program for disassembling all of this code very quickly would be the free version of IDA Pro (v 5.0) which we mentioned on our "Assembly Language 101" page; include the VBR Boot Sector, set Segment to: 7C0, use 16-bit disassembly and begin decoding at first byte of the Boot Sector. "c" must be pressed again at offset 27A (07C0:027A). ]

Take this link, to see: How the entire VBR Area appears in a Disk Editor.


The “Data Area” at the beginning of the
BOOTMGR Loader's (“Bootstrap”) Code

Hex Dump of the "BOOTMGR Loader Data Area":

 Absolute Sector 2049 (Cylinder 0, Head 32, Sector 34) or 
 Relative Sector    1

  Off.   0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  A  B  C  D  E  F

 0200:  07 00 42 00 4F 00 4F 00 54 00 4D 00 47 00 52 00  ..B.O.O.T.M.G.R.
 0210:  04 00 24 00 49 00 33 00 30 00 00 D4 00 00 00 24  ..$.I.3.0......$
 0220:  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  ................
 0230:  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  ................
 0240:  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  ................
 0250:  00 00 00 00 00 00 EB 22 90 90 05 00 4E 00 54 00  ......."....N.T.
 0260:  4C 00 44 00 52 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  L.D.R...........
 0270:  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00                    ..........

After searching through the code below, we were able to establish that all of the underlined 4-byte buffer or intermediate storage locations shown in the Data Area above are used by this code (links are to the secton of code below where each Double Word first occurs or is computed, followed by the location of each instruction using this value; we have also included a sample value for each one, so you will have an example of the relationships between them):

[0252] Bytes per Cluster (often 1000h = 4096 or eight 512-byte sectors); (7E89, 7EA7, 81D3, 8610). Example / Sample:
            Bytes per Cluster = 0x1000 (4096).
[0266] Bytes per File Record Segment (or Bytes per FRS); (7EAE, 7ECF, 7ED9, 7EE3, 7EED, 836C, 8375, 850B). Sample:
            Bytes per FRS = 0x0400 (1024).
[0256] Sectors per File Record Segment (or Sectors per FRS); (7EBE, 839A, 8407, 8426, 8518, 862B, 8630).
            Note: The data you currently see at 0256 ("EB 12 90 90") is overwritten by the instruction at 7EBE. Sample:
            Sectors per FRS = 0x0002.
[0222] Only used to store 0x00000001 (8364, 84DB, 84FE); why couldn't this have been preset in Data Area?
[021E] Contains preset value of: 0x2400 (9,216); (8368, 83AC, 83BC).
[026A] Bytes per FRS + 2400h; (8371, 8503, 8513, 8544, 854E). Sample:
            BpFRS + 2400h = 0x2800 (10,240).
[024E] (2 x Bytes per FRS) + 2400h or: [(2 x BpFRS) + 2400h]; (7EC5, 837A, 838B). Sample:
            (2 x BpFRS) + 2400h = 0x2C00 (11,264).
            However, due to BX being incremented by 4 at both 8397 and 83A4, [024E] results in being incremented by 8 at:
            83A7 (and 8439, 848B as well), so here [024E] = (2 x BpFRS) + 2400h + 8 = 0x2C08 (11,272).

What the following Memory locations are used for is still under construction . . . as are most comments regarding them in the code below.


[021A] Contains preset value of: 0xD400 (54,272); (83E1, 83EC, 892A, 8937).

[0200] Contains upper-case Unicode string for "BOOTMGR", (7FAE).
[0210] Contains upper-case Unicode string for "$I30", (88C0, 88F5).
[025A] Contains upper-case Unicode string for "NTLDR", (7FC4).

[0226] (7ECA, 7EFD).
[022A] Set to: (7ED4, 7F16, 8654).
[022E] Set to: (7EDE, 7F28, 7FA7).
[0232] Set to: (7F0C, 7F34, 87E6).
[0236] Set to: (7F1E, 7F87, 864A, 880A, 881D).
[023A] Set to: (7F30, 7F91, 7F9B).
[023E] Set to: (7EE8, 7FE0, 7FE8, 8008, 8034, 8044, 804C, 8087, 8095).
We did not find any reference to: [0242]).
[0246] Set to: (7EF2, 7F7A, 865B, 8866).
[026E] Set to: (7F61, 7F66, 7F7E, 882F), .
[0272] Set to: (7F57, 8645, 864F), .
and [0276] Set to: (7F76), .
Curiously, there is only one instance of [0276] in this code, so it may possibly be used later by the bootmgr program.

From the instruction at offset 7EBE below, we know the bytes at offsets 0256 through 0259 of this Data Area ("EB 22 90 90") are never executed, since these same bytes after being loaded into Memory are overwritten by that instruction to store some data from EAX after a division operation! Furthermore, after examining many other NTFS partitions, we have always found the same exact bytes in this "Data Area" location on every disk. Our Conclusion: This area is never changed on any hard drive, but it is used to store data after being copied into Memory. However, it is a fact that if code execution was ever passed to Memory location 0000:7E56 before being overwritten, the "EB 22" would jump to location 0000:7E7A; where this BOOTMGR Loader code currently begins. So, for whatever reason, we can't help but assume some programmer chose these bytes for that purpose, even though they appear to no longer be used (unless someone can find a Boot Sector that still has the location 07C0:0256 coded into it?).


An Examination of the Code

This is a disassembled copy of the code (; with comments) after being loaded into memory by the Win 7 NTFS Boot Sector; which has already loaded all 15 sectors of both the "Bootstrap" data/code (3,624 bytes) and zero-byte padded area (4,056 bytes) into locations 007C0:0200 (or 0000:7E00) and following, then transferred execution to location 07C0:027A (or Linear address 0x7E7A) as we'll refer to it below:

; ====================   S T A R T    O F    M A I N    C O D E   P A T H    =====================================================

; ====================================================================================
; Computation of Bytes per Cluster :

7E7A 660FB7060B00    MOVZX   EAX,WORD PTR [000B]  ; Sector Size in (hex) bytes 
                                                  ; from the BPB.  (Example:
                                                  ; 200h = 512 bytes/sector.)
7E80 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]  ; Sectors per Cluster from BPB.

7E86 66F7E3          MUL     EAX,EBX          ; So, EAX will = Bytes per Cluster 
7E89 66A35202        MOV     [0252],EAX       ;     Store in --> [0x7E52]
                                              ; (Example: 1000h = 4096 bytes/cluster.)
; ====================================================================================
; Computation of Bytes per File Record Segment (Bytes per FRS)
; (This code also shows how a -10 in 0x7C40 turns into 1024 bytes per FRS):

7E8D 668B0E4000      MOV     ECX,[0040]   ; [ Clusters per File Record Segment ]
7E92 80F900          CMP     CL,00        ; Normally CL is F6h (-10 as signed-byte).
7E95 0F8F0E00        JG      7EA7         ; If > 0, go to 7EA7. But in most cases it
                                          ;   will be negative (Less Than Zero),...
7E99 F6D9            NEG     CL           ;   So, Negation of F6(-10) = 0A (or +10).
7E9B 66B801000000    MOV     EAX,00000001 ;|  Put a 1 in EAX
7EA1 66D3E0          SHL     EAX,CL       ;| Shift Left 1 by 10 bits = 400h = 1024
7EA4 EB08            JMP     7EAE         ;| So, default value is 1,024 bytes.
7EA6 90              NOP
7EA7 66A15202        MOV     EAX,[0252]   ; Multiply Bytes per Cluster by
7EAB 66F7E1          MUL     EAX,ECX      ;   Clusters per File Record Segment =
                                          ;   Bytes per File Record Segment!
7EAE 66A36602        MOV     [0266],EAX   ;| Store BpFRS in --> [0x7E66].

; ====================================================================================
; Computation of Sectors per File Record Segment :

7EB2 660FB71E0B00    MOVZX   EBX,WORD PTR [000B] ; Put Bytes per Sector in EBX...
7EB8 6633D2          XOR     EDX,EDX             ; EDX = 0.
7EBB 66F7F3          DIV     EAX,EBX      ; Divide BpFRS (still in EAX) by Bytes
                                          ;  per Sector, so EAX will become:
                                          ;  Sectors per File Record Segment 
                                          ; (If BpFRS is 1024, we would get 2 here.)
7EBE 66A35602        MOV     [0256],EAX   ; Store it in [7E56].
                                          ; (Note: "EB 22 90 90" in Memory will
                                          ;   be replaced by whatever is in EAX.)
7EC2 E89504          CALL    835A

7EC5 668B0E4E02      MOV     ECX,[024E]
7ECA 66890E2602      MOV     [0226],ECX    ; Store it in [7E26].
7ECF 66030E6602      ADD     ECX,[0266]    ; Bytes per FRS
7ED4 66890E2A02      MOV     [022A],ECX    ; Store it in [7E2A].
7ED9 66030E6602      ADD     ECX,[0266]    ; Bytes per FRS
7EDE 66890E2E02      MOV     [022E],ECX    ; Store it in [7E2E].
7EE3 66030E6602      ADD     ECX,[0266]    ; Bytes per FRS
7EE8 66890E3E02      MOV     [023E],ECX    ; Store it in [7E3E].
7EED 66030E6602      ADD     ECX,[0266]    ; Bytes per FRS
7EF2 66890E4602      MOV     [0246],ECX    ; Store it in [7E46].
7EF7 66B890000000    MOV     EAX,00000090
7EFD 668B0E2602      MOV     ECX,[0226]
7F02 E88309          CALL    8888

7F05 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
7F08 0F845EFE        JZ      7D6A       ; Another use of code from the
                                        ;  Boot Sector... in this case,
                                        ;  to display error messages!

; We'll call this the Black-Hole Subroutine, since there
; is no escape from it! If execution ends up here, your
; PC will lock-up after displaying an error message!
; ====================================== S U B R O U T I N E =============================================

7D6A A0F801        MOV     AL,[7DF8]  ; Contains 8Ch + 100 -> 7D8C h which
                                      ;  points to: "A disk read error occurred" 

7D6D E80900        CALL    7D79       ; Displays whatever is pointed to by byte in
                                      ; AL + 100h in Segment 07C0; so: 0x7D_byte_
7D76 F4            HLT                ; HLT: Not found in Vista VBR code!
7D77 EBFD          JMP     7D76

; ------------------------------ SUBROUTINE --------------------------------------------
;     INT 10, Function 0Eh (Teletype Output) is used to display each
; character of the error messages.

7D79 B401          MOV     AH,01      ; Adds 100h to offsets from above. 
7D7B 8BF0          MOV     SI,AX      ; Offset of message -> Source Index Reg.
7D7D AC            LODSB              ; Load one character into AL from [SI].
7D7E 3C00          CMP     AL,00      ;/ Have we reached end of message
7D80 7409          JZ      7D8B       ;\   marker?(00) If so, then RETurn.
7D82 B40E          MOV     AH,0E      ;/ Otherwise use Teletype Output to ...
7D84 BB0700        MOV     BX,0007    ;| (BH = Display page 0,  BL = 07 is
                                      ;|  normal White on Black characters.)
7D87 CD10          INT     10         ;| ... display one character at a time,
7D89 EBF2          JMP     7D7D       ;\ and go back for another character...

7D8B C3            RET

; Further down in the code, it will also CALL the following subroutine in the Boot Sector
; (at 07C0:011D through 07C0:0169), which we have referenced here as 0x7D1D
; through 0x7D69. It was used by the Boot Sector to read the 15 sectors following it
; (to load the entire Boot Record Area into Memory). But here it will be used to read
; sectors from the NTFS file system while searching for the BOOTMGR file! (It's first
; CALLed from the instruction at 0x83B3; later from 80DC, 8532 and 860A.)

; =============================================================
;    SUBROUTINE - INT 13 Function 42h Extended DISK READ
; =============================================================
7D1D 6660         * PUSHAD             ; "Push All Double" - all 32-bit
                                       ;   GP Regs pushed onto Stack!
7D1F 1E             PUSH    DS         ;/ Both are 0x07C0
7D20 06             PUSH    ES         ;\  when we enter.
7D21 66A11100       MOV     EAX,[0011] ; For our Samples, at 1st pass,
                                       ; [7C11-14] = 0x600000 or 0x10AA8 
7D25 6603061C00     ADD     EAX,[001C] ; Add Number of Hidden Sectors  [001C] to
                                       ; Relative Sector offset within this Volume
                                       ; (already in EAX); result --> EAX Register.
;     This gives us the beginning Absolute Sector on disk (or media) to start reading from below.
;   For our Samples, this would give us: 0x600800 (6,293,504) or  0x112A8 (70,312).

7D2A 1E             PUSH    DS         ; Put another 0x07C0 onto Stack.
7D2B 666800000000 * PUSH    00000000   ;   Put 4 zero bytes onto Stack.
                                       ;   (These would be used to read
                                       ;    locations beyond 32 bits.)
7D31 6650         * PUSH    EAX        ; Starting Absolute Sector
7D33 06             PUSH    ES         ; Transfer Buffer _Segment:_
7D34 53             PUSH    BX         ; Transfer Buffer _:Offset_
7D35 680100       * PUSH    0001       ; Blocks to Transfer = 1
7D38 681000       * PUSH    0010       ; Size of Packet = 16 bytes
7D3B B442           MOV     AH,42      ; Function 42h (INT13)
7D3D 8A160E00       MOV     DL,[000E]  ; Drive # (usually 80h) -> DL
7D41 16             PUSH    SS         ; (which is zero)...
7D42 1F             POP     DS         ;  ...changing DS to zero.
7D43 8BF4           MOV     SI,SP      ; DS:SI (0000:7BA2) -> Disk Address Packet; which
                                       ; is: _The Stack_ we just PUSHed all that data onto!
7D45 CD13           INT     13
Upon entry into the INT 13 Interrupt with AX=4201, we have:

     DL = drive number = 80h
  DS:SI -> disk address packet = 0000:7BA2 (Top of Stack;
        onto which we stored all required data as follows)

  EXAMPLE VALUES are given for Reading from Absolute Sector 0x112A8

            Format of Disk Address Packet:
Offst Size  Description
  00  BYTE  Size of packet (in this case: 10h or 16 bytes) [7BA2]
            (The 16 bytes include & start with this byte!)
  01  BYTE  Reserved (0)                                   [7BA3]
  02  WORD  Number of Blocks to Transfer (always 1 for us) [7BA4 - 7BA5]
            ("01 00" in Memory = 1 )

  04 DWORD  -> Transfer Buffer (as little-endian Segment:Offset value):
               [7BA6 - 7BA9] = (00 24 C0 07) = 07C0:2400 which is the
                same as Linear offset: 7C00 h + 2400 h = 0xA000.

  08 QWORD  Starting Absolute Sector Number: [7BAA - 7BB1] --->
               ("A8 12 01 00 00 00 00 00") =  0112A8h = 70,312
  (for non-LBA devices, compute as follows):
  ( (Cylinder x Number of Heads) + Selected Head) ) x Sectors/Track)
              + Selected Sector  - 1, or for here:

     ( (69 x 16) + 12) x 63) + 5 - 1 = 70,312
    Return: CF clear if successful and AH = 00h
	    CF set on error; AH = error code
    Disk Address Packet's block count field is set to number of blocks
    successfully transferred

7D47 6659         * POP     ECX        ; Usually: 0x00010010
7D49 5B             POP     BX         ; Offset we read from: 2400
7D4A 5A             POP     DX         ;  and its Segment: 07C0:
7D4B 6659         * POP     ECX        ; Sector we read from.
7D4D 6659         * POP     ECX        ; Zeros out ECX.
7D4F 1F             POP     DS         ; Put 07C0 back in DS.
7D50 0F821600     * JB      7D6A
7D54 66FF061100   * INC     DWORD PTR [0011]  ; Add 1 to [0x7C11 - 0x7C14] so
                                              ; next sector will be read from.
7D59 03160F00       ADD     DX,[000F]         ; 1st pass: 7e0 + 20h = 800h.
7D5D 8EC2           MOV     ES,DX             ; DX (now 800h) goes into ES.
7D5F FF0E1600       DEC     WORD PTR [0016]   ; [0x16] goes back -> 0. 
7D63 75BC           JNZ     7D21
7D65 07             POP     ES
7D66 1F             POP     DS
7D67 6661         * POPAD              ; "Pop All Double" - all 32-bit
                                       ;   GP Regs reset from Stack!

7D69 C3             RET

7F0C 66A33202        MOV     [0232],EAX    ; Store it in [7E32].
7F10 66B8A0000000    MOV     EAX,000000A0
7F16 668B0E2A02      MOV     ECX,[022A]
7F1B E86A09          CALL    8888

7F1E 66A33602        MOV     [0236],EAX    ; Store it in [7E36].
7F22 66B8B0000000    MOV     EAX,000000B0
7F28 668B0E2E02      MOV     ECX,[022E]
7F2D E85809          CALL    8888

7F30 66A33A02        MOV     [023A],EAX
7F34 66A13202        MOV     EAX,[0232]
7F38 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
7F3B 0F842BFE        JZ      7D6A
7F3F 6780780800      CMP     BYTE PTR 08[EAX],00
7F44 0F8522FE        JNZ     7D6A
7F48 67668D5010      LEA     EDX,10[EAX]
7F4D 67034204        ADD     AX,04[EDX]
7F51 67660FB6480C    MOVZX   ECX,BYTE PTR 0C[EAX]
7F57 66890E7202      MOV     [0272],ECX
7F5C 67668B4808      MOV     ECX,08[EAX]
7F61 66890E6E02      MOV     [026E],ECX
7F66 66A16E02        MOV     EAX,[026E]
7F6A 660FB70E0B00    MOVZX   ECX,WORD PTR [000B]
7F70 6633D2          XOR     EDX,EDX
7F73 66F7F1          DIV     ECX
7F76 66A37602        MOV     [0276],EAX
7F7A 66A14602        MOV     EAX,[0246]
7F7E 6603066E02      ADD     EAX,[026E]
7F83 66A34A02        MOV     [024A],EAX
7F87 66833E360200    CMP     DWORD PTR [0236],+00
7F8D 0F841D00        JZ      7FAE
7F91 66833E3A0200    CMP     DWORD PTR [023A],+00
7F97 0F84CFFD        JZ      7D6A
7F9B 668B1E3A02      MOV     EBX,[023A]
7FA0 1E              PUSH    DS
7FA1 07              POP     ES
7FA2 668B3E4A02      MOV     EDI,[024A]
7FA7 66A12E02        MOV     EAX,[022E]
7FAB E8E001          CALL    818E 

7FAE 660FB70E0002    MOVZX   ECX,WORD PTR [0200]    ; "BOOTMGR" in Unicode.
7FB4 66B802020000    MOV     EAX,00000202
7FBA E82208          CALL    87DF 

7FBD 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
7FC0 0F851600        JNZ     7FDA

7FC4 660FB70E5A02    MOVZX   ECX,WORD PTR [025A]    ; "NTLDR" in Unicode.
7FCA 66B85C020000    MOV     EAX,0000025C
7FD0 E80C08          CALL    87DF 

7FD3 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
7FD6 0F84420C        JZ      8C1C
7FDA 67668B00        MOV     EAX,[EAX]
7FDE 1E              PUSH    DS
7FDF 07              POP     ES
7FE0 668B3E3E02      MOV     EDI,[023E]
7FE5 E83F06          CALL    8627 

7FE8 66A13E02        MOV     EAX,[023E]
7FEC 66BB20000000    MOV     EBX,00000020
7FF2 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
7FF8 66BA00000000    MOV     EDX,00000000
7FFE E8E400          CALL    80E5 

8001 6685C0          TEST    EAX,EAX
8004 0F852300        JNZ     802B
8008 66A13E02        MOV     EAX,[023E]
800C 66BB80000000    MOV     EBX,00000080
8012 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
8018 66BA00000000    MOV     EDX,00000000
801E E8C400          CALL    80E5 

8021 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
8024 0F854400        JNZ     806C
8028 E9F10B          JMP     8C1C

802B 6633D2          XOR     EDX,EDX
802E 66B980000000    MOV     ECX,00000080
8034 66A13E02        MOV     EAX,[023E]
8038 E8CA08          CALL    8905 

803B 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
803E 0F84DA0B        JZ      8C1C
8042 1E              PUSH    DS
8043 07              POP     ES
8044 668B3E3E02      MOV     EDI,[023E]
8049 E8DB05          CALL    8627 

804C 66A13E02        MOV     EAX,[023E]
8050 66BB80000000    MOV     EBX,00000080
8056 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
805C 66BA00000000    MOV     EDX,00000000
8062 E88000          CALL    80E5 

8065 660BC0            OR      EAX,EAX
8068 0F84B00B          JZ      8C1C
806C 67660FB7580C      MOVZX   EBX,WORD PTR 0C[EAX]
8072 6681E3FF000000    AND     EBX,000000FF
8079 0F85A50B          JNZ     8C22
807D 668BD8            MOV     EBX,EAX
8080 680020            PUSH    WORD 2000
8083 07                POP     ES
8084 662BFF            SUB     EDI,EDI
8087 66A13E02          MOV     EAX,[023E]
808B E80001            CALL    818E 

808E 680020          PUSH    WORD 2000
8091 07              POP     ES
8092 662BFF          SUB     EDI,EDI
8095 66A13E02        MOV     EAX,[023E]
8099 E8AC0A          CALL    8B48 
; Exit Point to bootmgr program at Linear offset 0x20000:
809C 8A160E00        MOV     DL,[000E]    ; Drive Number - usually 80h (1st drive)
80A0 B8E803          MOV     AX,03E8      ; 0x03E8 -> AX
80A3 8EC0            MOV     ES,AX        ; ES (Extra Segment) = 0x3E8
80A5 8D360B00        LEA     SI,[000B]    ; Bytes per Sector 
80A9 2BC0            SUB     AX,AX        ; Zero-out AX (like: "XOR AX,AX")
80AB 680020          PUSH    WORD 2000
80AE 50              PUSH    AX
80AF CB              RETF               ; Jump to bootmgr program file in
                                        ; Memory at Linear offset 0x20000

; ========================================    E N D    O F    M A I N    C O D E   ======================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
80B0 06              PUSH    ES
80B1 1E              PUSH    DS
80B2 6660            PUSHAD
80B4 668BDA          MOV     EBX,EDX
80B7 660FB60E0D00    MOVZX   ECX,BYTE PTR [000D]
80BD 66F7E1          MUL     ECX
80C0 66A31100        MOV     [0011],EAX
80C4 668BC3          MOV     EAX,EBX
80C7 66F7E1          MUL     ECX
80CA A31600          MOV     [0016],AX
80CD 8BDF            MOV     BX,DI
80CF 83E30F          AND     BX,+0F
80D2 8CC0            MOV     AX,ES
80D4 66C1EF04        SHR     EDI,04
80D8 03C7            ADD     AX,DI
80DA 50              PUSH    AX
80DB 07              POP     ES
80DC E83EFC          CALL    7D1D 

80DF 6661            POPAD

80E1 90            NOP

80E2 1F            POP     DS
80E3 07            POP     ES
80E4 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
80E5 67034014      ADD     AX,14[EAX]
80E9 67668338FF    CMP     DWORD PTR [EAX],-01
80EE 0F844C00      JZ      813E
80F2 67663918      CMP     [EAX],EBX
80F6 0F853300      JNZ     812D
80FA 660BC9        OR      ECX,ECX
80FD 0F850A00      JNZ     810B
8101 6780780900    CMP     BYTE PTR 09[EAX],00
8106 0F852300      JNZ     812D
810A C3            RET

810B 673A4809      CMP     CL,09[EAX]
810F 0F851A00      JNZ     812D
8113 668BF0        MOV     ESI,EAX
8116 6703700A      ADD     SI,0A[EAX]
811A E89706        CALL    87B4 

811D 6651          PUSH    ECX
811F 1E            PUSH    DS
8120 07            POP     ES
8121 668BFA        MOV     EDI,EDX
8124 F3A7          REPE    CMPSW
8126 6659          POP     ECX
8128 0F850100      JNZ     812D
812C C3            RET

812D 676683780400    CMP     DWORD PTR 04[EAX],+00
8133 0F840700        JZ      813E
8137 6766034004      ADD     EAX,04[EAX]
813C EBAB            JMP     80E9

813E 662BC0          SUB     EAX,EAX
8141 C3              RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8142 668BF3          MOV     ESI,EBX
8145 E86C06          CALL    87B4 

8148 67660300        ADD     EAX,[EAX]
814C 67F7400C0200    TEST    WORD PTR 0C[EAX],0002
8152 0F853400        JNZ     818A
8156 67668D5010      LEA     EDX,10[EAX]
815B 673A4A40        CMP     CL,40[EDX]
815F 0F851800        JNZ     817B
8163 67668D7242      LEA     ESI,42[EDX]
8168 E84906          CALL    87B4 

816B 6651            PUSH    ECX
816D 1E              PUSH    DS
816E 07              POP     ES
816F 668BFB          MOV     EDI,EBX
8172 F3A7            REPE    CMPSW
8174 6659            POP     ECX
8176 0F850100        JNZ     817B
817A C3              RET

817B 6783780800    CMP     WORD PTR 08[EAX],+00
8180 0F840600      JZ      818A
8184 67034008      ADD     AX,08[EAX]
8188 EBC2          JMP     814C

818A 6633C0        XOR     EAX,EAX
818D C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
818E 67807B0800    CMP     BYTE PTR 08[EBX],00
8193 0F851C00      JNZ     81B3
8197 06            PUSH    ES
8198 1E            PUSH    DS
8199 6660          PUSHAD
819B 67668D5310    LEA     EDX,10[EBX]
81A0 67668B0A      MOV     ECX,[EDX]
81A4 668BF3        MOV     ESI,EBX
81A7 67037204      ADD     SI,04[EDX]
81AB F3A4          REP     MOVSB
81AD 6661          POPAD

81AF 90            NOP

81B0 1F            POP     DS
81B1 07            POP     ES
81B2 C3            RET

81B3 6650          PUSH    EAX
81B5 67668D5310    LEA     EDX,10[EBX]
81BA 6685C0        TEST    EAX,EAX
81BD 0F850A00      JNZ     81CB
81C1 67668B4A08    MOV     ECX,08[EDX]
81C6 6641          INC     ECX
81C8 EB11          JMP     81DB

81CA 90            NOP

81CB 67668B4218    MOV     EAX,18[EDX]
81D0 6633D2        XOR     EDX,EDX
81D3 66F7365202    DIV     DWORD PTR [0252]
81D8 668BC8        MOV     ECX,EAX
81DB 662BC0        SUB     EAX,EAX
81DE 665E          POP     ESI
81E0 E80100        CALL    81E4 

81E3 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
81E4 06            PUSH    ES
81E5 1E            PUSH    DS
81E6 6660          PUSHAD
81E8 67807B0801    CMP     BYTE PTR 08[EBX],01
81ED 0F840300      JZ      81F4
81F1 E976FB        JMP     7D6A

81F4 6683F900      CMP     ECX,+00
81F8 0F850600      JNZ     8202
81FC 6661          POPAD
81FE 90            NOP
81FF 1F            POP     DS
8200 07            POP     ES
8201 C3            RET

8202 6653          PUSH    EBX
8204 6650          PUSH    EAX
8206 6651          PUSH    ECX
8208 6656          PUSH    ESI
820A 6657          PUSH    EDI
820C 06            PUSH    ES
820D E89104        CALL    86A1 

8210 668BD1        MOV     EDX,ECX
8213 07            POP     ES
8214 665F          POP     EDI
8216 665E          POP     ESI
8218 6659          POP     ECX
821A 6685C0        TEST    EAX,EAX
821D 0F843400      JZ      8255
8221 663BCA        CMP     ECX,EDX
8224 0F8D0300      JGE     822B
8228 668BD1        MOV     EDX,ECX
822B E882FE        CALL    80B0 

822E 662BCA          SUB     ECX,EDX
8231 668BDA          MOV     EBX,EDX
8234 668BC2          MOV     EAX,EDX
8237 660FB6160D00    MOVZX   EDX,BYTE PTR [000D]
823D 66F7E2          MUL     EDX
8240 660FB7160B00    MOVZX   EDX,WORD PTR [000B]
8246 66F7E2          MUL     EDX
8249 6603F8          ADD     EDI,EAX
824C 6658            POP     EAX
824E 6603C3          ADD     EAX,EBX
8251 665B            POP     EBX
8253 EB9F            JMP     81F4

8255 6685F6          TEST    ESI,ESI
8258 0F840EFB        JZ      7D6A
825C 6651            PUSH    ECX
825E 6657            PUSH    EDI
8260 06              PUSH    ES
8261 67660FB64309    MOVZX   EAX,BYTE PTR 09[EBX]
8267 6685C0          TEST    EAX,EAX
826A 0F842000        JZ      828E
826E 66D1E0          SHL     EAX,1
8271 662BE0          SUB     ESP,EAX
8274 668BFC          MOV     EDI,ESP
8277 6654            PUSH    ESP
8279 6656            PUSH    ESI
827B 67660FB7730A    MOVZX   ESI,WORD PTR 0A[EBX]
8281 6603F3          ADD     ESI,EBX
8284 668BC8          MOV     ECX,EAX
8287 F3A4            REP     MOVSB
8289 665E            POP     ESI
828B EB03            JMP     8290

828D 90            NOP

828E 6650          PUSH    EAX
8290 6650          PUSH    EAX
8292 67668B03      MOV     EAX,[EBX]
8296 6650          PUSH    EAX
8298 67668B4318    MOV     EAX,18[EBX]
829D 6650          PUSH    EAX
829F 67668B5620    MOV     EDX,20[ESI]
82A4 6685D2        TEST    EDX,EDX
82A7 0F840B00      JZ      82B6
82AB 668BFE        MOV     EDI,ESI
82AE 1E            PUSH    DS
82AF 07            POP     ES
82B0 668BC2        MOV     EAX,EDX
82B3 E87103        CALL    8627 

82B6 668BC6        MOV     EAX,ESI
82B9 665A          POP     EDX
82BB 6659          POP     ECX
82BD 6642          INC     EDX
82BF 6651          PUSH    ECX
82C1 6656          PUSH    ESI
82C3 E83F06        CALL    8905 

82C6 6685C0        TEST    EAX,EAX
82C9 0F849DFA      JZ      7D6A
82CD 665E          POP     ESI
82CF 6659          POP     ECX
82D1 668BFE        MOV     EDI,ESI
82D4 1E            PUSH    DS
82D5 07            POP     ES
82D6 E84E03        CALL    8627 

82D9 668BC6        MOV     EAX,ESI
82DC 668BD9        MOV     EBX,ECX
82DF 6659          POP     ECX
82E1 665A          POP     EDX
82E3 6651          PUSH    ECX
82E5 6656          PUSH    ESI
82E7 66D1E9        SHR     ECX,1
82EA E8F8FD        CALL    80E5 

82ED 6685C0        TEST    EAX,EAX
82F0 0F8476FA      JZ      7D6A
82F4 665E          POP     ESI
82F6 6659          POP     ECX
82F8 6603E1        ADD     ESP,ECX
82FB 07            POP     ES
82FC 665F          POP     EDI
82FE 6659          POP     ECX
8300 668BD0        MOV     EDX,EAX
8303 6658          POP     EAX
8305 665B          POP     EBX
8307 668BDA        MOV     EBX,EDX
830A E9F5FE        JMP     8202
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
830D 06                 PUSH    ES
830E 1E                 PUSH    DS
830F 6660               PUSHAD
8311 2667660FB75F04     MOVZX   EBX,WORD PTR ES:04[EDI]
8318 2667660FB74F06     MOVZX   ECX,WORD PTR ES:06[EDI]
831F 660BC9             OR      ECX,ECX
8322 0F8444FA           JZ      7D6A
8326 6603DF             ADD     EBX,EDI
8329 6683C302           ADD     EBX,+02
832D 6681C7FE010000     ADD     EDI,000001FE
8334 6649               DEC     ECX
8336 660BC9             OR      ECX,ECX
8339 0F841700           JZ      8354
833D 26678B03           MOV     AX,ES:[EBX]
8341 26678907           MOV     ES:[EDI],AX
8345 6683C302           ADD     EBX,+02
8349 6681C700020000     ADD     EDI,00000200
8350 6649               DEC     ECX
8352 EBE2               JMP     8336

8354 6661               POPAD

8356 90               NOP

8357 1F               POP     DS
8358 07               POP     ES
8359 C3               RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ====================================================================
; *                      S U B R O U T I N E                         *
; ====================================================================
; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
835A 06               PUSH    ES           ; ES is often 0x09A0.
835B 1E               PUSH    DS           ; DS is 0x07C0 at this time.
835C 6660             PUSHAD               ; Push all GP "Double" Registers onto
                                           ; stack: EAX, ECX, EDX, EBX, original
                                           ;        ESP, EBP, ESI, and EDI.

; Simply sets [0222] to 0x00000001 (why not preset this in the Data Area?)
835E 66B801000000     MOV     EAX,00000001
8364 66A32202         MOV     [0222],EAX   ; Puts a 1 in [7E22]

; Makes Contents of 0x7E66 = BpFRS + 2400h
8368 66A11E02         MOV     EAX,[021E]   ; Put 2400h into EAX.
836C 6603066602       ADD     EAX,[0266]   ; Add Bytes per File Record Segment
8371 66A36A02         MOV     [026A],EAX   ; Puts (BpFRS + 2400h) into [026A], so for
                                           ;    our Sample data, this now = 0x2800.

; Makes Contents of 0x7E4E = (2 x BpFRS) + 2400h
8375 6603066602      ADD     EAX,[0266]    ; Add Bytes per FRS again!
837A 66A34E02        MOV     [024E],EAX    ; Puts [(2 x BpFRS) + 2400h] into [024E]
                                           ; (for Sample data, this = 0x2C00 then.)

; Put "Starting Cluster Number of $MFT File" into EAX. Then multiply that
; by Sectors per Cluster (in EBX) and copy answer ("Starting Relative
; Sector of $MFT File") into DS:[BX] as well as [7C11 - 7C14].

837E 66A13000        MOV     EAX,[0030]    ; Starting Cluster Number $MFT File
                                           ; Examples: C0000h = Cluster 786432
                                           ;            2155h = Cluster   8533.

8382 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]   ; Sectors per Cluster -> EBX
8388 66F7E3          MUL     EBX        ; Examples: C0000h x 8 = 600000h in EAX
                                        ;            2155h x 8 =  10AA8h in EAX.
                                        ; So, Starting Relative Sector of $MFT file
                           ; would be: 6291456 (for 600000h) or 68264 (for 10AA8h).

838B 668B1E4E02      MOV     EBX,[024E]    ; Using: 0x2C00 for these examples. 
8390 668907          MOV     [BX],EAX      ;  EAX -> DS:[BX] (DS=07C0)
                                           ; If BX = 2C00, Sample's location is:
; DS:[BX] = 7C0:2C00 = (0x7C00 + 0x2C00) = 0xA800; contains 0x600000 or 0x10AA8.

8393 66A31100        MOV     [0011],EAX    ; EAX -> [7C11 thru 7C14]; also save
                                           ; Relative Sector location of $MFT
                                           ; file to [7C11-7C14] in the Volume.

8397 83C304          ADD     BX,+04        ; Example: 2C00h + 4 = 2C04h
839A 66A15602        MOV     EAX,[0256]    ; Sectors per FRS -> EAX
839E 668907          MOV     [BX],EAX      ; (Example: EAX = 2 sectors per FRS)
                                           ; EAX -> DS:[BX] (DS=07C0), so:
; DS:[BX] = 7C0:2C04 = (0x7C000 + 0x2C04) = 0xA804; now containing 0x00000002

83A1 A31600          MOV     [0016],AX     ; AX -> [7C16] (save as 0x0002 here)

83A4 83C304          ADD     BX,+04        ; Example: 2C04h + 4 = 2C08h
83A7 66891E4E02      MOV     [024E],EBX    ; If BX was originally 0x2C04,
                                           ; we now save 0x2C08 to [024E].

83AC 668B1E1E02      MOV     EBX,[021E]    ; Reset EBX to 0x2400 (from [7E1E]).
83B1 1E              PUSH    DS            ; DS is still 0x07C0
83B2 07              POP     ES            ;(ES was 09A0 up to this point)
83B3 E867F9          CALL    7D1D 

83B6 668BFB          MOV     EDI,EBX
83B9 E851FF          CALL    830D 

83BC 66A11E02        MOV     EAX,[021E]    ; Put 2400h into EAX.
83C0 66BB20000000    MOV     EBX,00000020
83C6 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
83CC 66BA00000000    MOV     EDX,00000000
83D2 E810FD          CALL    80E5 

83D5 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
83D8 0F841901        JZ      84F5
83DC 668BD8          MOV     EBX,EAX
83DF 1E              PUSH    DS
83E0 07              POP     ES
83E1 668B3E1A02      MOV     EDI,[021A]
83E6 6633C0          XOR     EAX,EAX
83E9 E8A2FD          CALL    818E 

83EC 668B1E1A02      MOV     EBX,[021A]
83F1 66813F800000    CMP     DWORD PTR [BX],00000080
83F8 0F84EB00        JZ      84E7
83FC 035F04          ADD     BX,[BX+04]
83FF EBF0            JMP     83F1

8401 6653            PUSH    EBX
8403 668B4710        MOV     EAX,[BX+10]
8407 66F7265602      MUL     DWORD PTR [0256]
840C 6650            PUSH    EAX
840E 6633D2          XOR     EDX,EDX
8411 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]
8417 66F7F3          DIV     EBX
841A 6652            PUSH    EDX
841C E8DC00          CALL    84FB 

841F 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
8422 0F8444F9        JZ      7D6A
8426 668B0E5602      MOV     ECX,[0256]
842B 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]
8431 66F7E3          MUL     EBX
8434 665A            POP     EDX
8436 6603C2          ADD     EAX,EDX
8439 668B1E4E02      MOV     EBX,[024E]
843E 668907          MOV     [BX],EAX
8441 83C304          ADD     BX,+04
8444 660FB6060D00    MOVZX   EAX,BYTE PTR [000D]
844A 662BC2          SUB     EAX,EDX
844D 663BC1          CMP     EAX,ECX
8450 0F860300        JBE     8457
8454 668BC1          MOV     EAX,ECX
8457 668907          MOV     [BX],EAX
845A 662BC8          SUB     ECX,EAX
845D 665A            POP     EDX
845F 0F847500        JZ      84D8
8463 6603C2          ADD     EAX,EDX
8466 6650            PUSH    EAX
8468 6633D2          XOR     EDX,EDX
846B 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]
8471 66F7F3          DIV     EBX
8474 6651            PUSH    ECX
8476 E88200          CALL    84FB 

8479 6659            POP     ECX
847B 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
847E 0F84E8F8        JZ      7D6A
8482 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]
8488 66F7E3          MUL     EBX
848B 668B1E4E02      MOV     EBX,[024E]
8490 668B17          MOV     EDX,[BX]
8493 83C304          ADD     BX,+04
8496 660317          ADD     EDX,[BX]
8499 663BD0          CMP     EDX,EAX
849C 0F851500        JNZ     84B5
84A0 660FB6060D00    MOVZX   EAX,BYTE PTR [000D]
84A6 663BC1          CMP     EAX,ECX
84A9 0F860300        JBE     84B0
84AD 668BC1          MOV     EAX,ECX
84B0 660107          ADD     [BX],EAX
84B3 EBA5            JMP     845A

84B5 83C304          ADD     BX,+04
84B8 66891E4E02      MOV     [024E],EBX
84BD 668907          MOV     [BX],EAX
84C0 83C304          ADD     BX,+04
84C3 660FB6060D00    MOVZX   EAX,BYTE PTR [000D]
84C9 663BC1          CMP     EAX,ECX
84CC 0F860300        JBE     84D3
84D0 668BC1          MOV     EAX,ECX
84D3 668907          MOV     [BX],EAX
84D6 EB82            JMP     845A

84D8 83C304            ADD     BX,+04
84DB 66FF062202        INC     DWORD PTR [0222]
84E0 66891E4E02        MOV     [024E],EBX
84E5 665B              POP     EBX
84E7 035F04            ADD     BX,[BX+04]
84EA 66813F80000000    CMP     DWORD PTR [BX],00000080
84F1 0F840CFF          JZ      8401
84F5 6661              POPAD

84F7 90            NOP

84F8 1F            POP     DS
84F9 07            POP     ES
84FA C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
84FB 668BD0        MOV     EDX,EAX
84FE 668B0E2202    MOV     ECX,[0222]
8503 668B366A02    MOV     ESI,[026A]
8508 6603366602    ADD     ESI,[0266]
850D 6652          PUSH    EDX
850F 6651          PUSH    ECX
8511 6652          PUSH    EDX
8513 668B1E6A02    MOV     EBX,[026A]
8518 668B3E5602    MOV     EDI,[0256]
851D 668B04        MOV     EAX,[SI]
8520 66A31100      MOV     [0011],EAX
8524 83C604        ADD     SI,+04
8527 668B04        MOV     EAX,[SI]
852A A31600        MOV     [0016],AX
852D 83C604        ADD     SI,+04
8530 1E            PUSH    DS
8531 07            POP     ES
8532 E8E8F7        CALL    7D1D 

8535 662BF8        SUB     EDI,EAX
8538 0F840800      JZ      8544
853C F7260B00      MUL     WORD PTR [000B]
8540 03D8          ADD     BX,AX
8542 EBD9          JMP     851D

8544 668B3E6A02    MOV     EDI,[026A]
8549 1E            PUSH    DS
854A 07            POP     ES
854B E8BFFD        CALL    830D 

854E 66A16A02        MOV     EAX,[026A]
8552 66BB80000000    MOV     EBX,00000080
8558 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
855E 668BD1          MOV     EDX,ECX
8561 E881FB          CALL    80E5 

8564 660BC0        OR      EAX,EAX
8567 0F84FFF7      JZ      7D6A
856B 668BD8        MOV     EBX,EAX
856E 6658          POP     EAX
8570 6656          PUSH    ESI
8572 E82C01        CALL    86A1 

8575 665E          POP     ESI
8577 660BC0        OR      EAX,EAX
857A 0F840500      JZ      8583
857E 665B          POP     EBX
8580 665B          POP     EBX
8582 C3            RET

8583 6659          POP     ECX
8585 665A          POP     EDX
8587 E284          LOOPW   850D

8589 6633C0        XOR     EAX,EAX
858C C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
858D 06              PUSH    ES
858E 1E              PUSH    DS
858F 6660            PUSHAD
8591 6650            PUSH    EAX
8593 6651            PUSH    ECX
8595 6633D2          XOR     EDX,EDX
8598 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]
859E 66F7F3          DIV     EBX
85A1 6652            PUSH    EDX
85A3 6657            PUSH    EDI
85A5 E853FF          CALL    84FB 

85A8 665F            POP     EDI
85AA 660BC0          OR      EAX,EAX
85AD 0F84B9F7        JZ      7D6A
85B1 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]
85B7 66F7E3          MUL     EBX
85BA 665A            POP     EDX
85BC 6603C2          ADD     EAX,EDX
85BF 66A31100        MOV     [0011],EAX
85C3 6659            POP     ECX
85C5 660FB61E0D00    MOVZX   EBX,BYTE PTR [000D]
85CB 663BCB          CMP     ECX,EBX
85CE 0F8E1300        JLE     85E5
85D2 891E1600        MOV     [0016],BX
85D6 662BCB          SUB     ECX,EBX
85D9 6658            POP     EAX
85DB 6603C3          ADD     EAX,EBX
85DE 6650            PUSH    EAX
85E0 6651            PUSH    ECX
85E2 EB14            JMP     85F8

85E4 90            NOP

85E5 6658            POP     EAX
85E7 6603C1          ADD     EAX,ECX
85EA 6650            PUSH    EAX
85EC 890E1600        MOV     [0016],CX
85F0 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
85F6 6651            PUSH    ECX
85F8 06              PUSH    ES
85F9 6657            PUSH    EDI
85FB 8BDF            MOV     BX,DI
85FD 83E30F          AND     BX,+0F
8600 8CC0            MOV     AX,ES
8602 66C1EF04        SHR     EDI,04
8606 03C7            ADD     AX,DI
8608 50              PUSH    AX
8609 07              POP     ES
860A E810F7          CALL    7D1D 

860D 665F          POP     EDI
860F 07            POP     ES
8610 66033E5202    ADD     EDI,[0252]
8615 6659          POP     ECX
8617 6658          POP     EAX
8619 6683F900      CMP     ECX,+00
861D 0F8F70FF      JG      8591
8621 6661          POPAD

8623 90            NOP

8624 1F            POP     DS
8625 07            POP     ES
8626 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8627 06            PUSH    ES
8628 1E            PUSH    DS
8629 6660          PUSHAD
862B 66F7265602    MUL     DWORD PTR [0256]
8630 668B0E5602    MOV     ECX,[0256]
8635 E855FF        CALL    858D

8638 E8D2FC        CALL    830D 

863B 6661          POPAD

863D 90            NOP

863E 1F            POP     DS
863F 07            POP     ES
8640 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8641 06            PUSH    ES
8642 1E            PUSH    DS
8643 6660          PUSHAD
8645 66F7267202    MUL     DWORD PTR [0272]
864A 668B1E3602    MOV     EBX,[0236]
864F 668B0E7202    MOV     ECX,[0272]
8654 668B362A02    MOV     ESI,[022A]
8659 1E            PUSH    DS
865A 07            POP     ES
865B 668B3E4602    MOV     EDI,[0246]
8660 E881FB        CALL    81E4 

8663 E8A7FC        CALL    830D 

8666 6661          POPAD

8668 90            NOP

8669 1F            POP     DS
866A 07            POP     ES
866B C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
866C 6650            PUSH    EAX
866E 6653            PUSH    EBX
8670 6651            PUSH    ECX
8672 668B1E4A02      MOV     EBX,[024A]
8677 668BC8          MOV     ECX,EAX
867A 66C1E803        SHR     EAX,03
867E 6683E107        AND     ECX,+07
8682 6603D8          ADD     EBX,EAX
8685 66B801000000    MOV     EAX,00000001
868B 66D3E0          SHL     EAX,CL
868E 678403          TEST    [EBX],AL
8691 0F840400        JZ      8699
8695 F8              CLC
8696 EB02            JMP     869A

8698 90            NOP

8699 F9            STC
869A 6659          POP     ECX
869C 665B          POP     EBX
869E 6658          POP     EAX
86A0 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
86A1 67807B0801    CMP     BYTE PTR 08[EBX],01
86A6 0F840400      JZ      86AE
86AA 662BC0        SUB     EAX,EAX
86AD C3            RET

86AE 67668D7310    LEA     ESI,10[EBX]
86B3 67668B5608    MOV     EDX,08[ESI]
86B8 663BC2        CMP     EAX,EDX
86BB 0F870B00      JA      86CA
86BF 67668B16      MOV     EDX,[ESI]
86C3 663BC2        CMP     EAX,EDX
86C6 0F830400      JAE     86CE
86CA 662BC0        SUB     EAX,EAX
86CD C3            RET

86CE 67035E10      ADD     BX,10[ESI]
86D2 662BF6        SUB     ESI,ESI
86D5 67803B00      CMP     BYTE PTR [EBX],00
86D9 0F843E00      JZ      871B
86DD E88100        CALL    8761 

86E0 6603F1        ADD     ESI,ECX
86E3 E83900        CALL    871F 

86E6 6603CA        ADD     ECX,EDX
86E9 663BC1        CMP     EAX,ECX
86EC 0F8C2100      JL      8711
86F0 668BD1        MOV     EDX,ECX
86F3 6650          PUSH    EAX
86F5 67660FB60B    MOVZX   ECX,BYTE PTR [EBX]
86FA 668BC1        MOV     EAX,ECX
86FD 6683E00F      AND     EAX,+0F
8701 66C1E904      SHR     ECX,04
8705 6603D9        ADD     EBX,ECX
8708 6603D8        ADD     EBX,EAX
870B 6643          INC     EBX
870D 6658          POP     EAX
870F EBC4          JMP     86D5

8711 662BC8        SUB     ECX,EAX
8714 662BC2        SUB     EAX,EDX
8717 6603C6        ADD     EAX,ESI
871A C3            RET

871B 662BC0        SUB     EAX,EAX
871E C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
871F 662BC9        SUB     ECX,ECX
8722 678A0B        MOV     CL,[EBX]
8725 80E10F        AND     CL,0F
8728 6683F900      CMP     ECX,+00
872C 0F850400      JNZ     8734
8730 662BC9        SUB     ECX,ECX
8733 C3            RET

8734 6653          PUSH    EBX
8736 6652          PUSH    EDX
8738 6603D9        ADD     EBX,ECX
873B 67660FBE13    MOVSX   EDX,BYTE PTR [EBX]
8740 6649          DEC     ECX
8742 664B          DEC     EBX
8744 6683F900      CMP     ECX,+00
8748 0F840D00      JZ      8759
874C 66C1E208      SHL     EDX,08
8750 678A13        MOV     DL,[EBX]
8753 664B          DEC     EBX
8755 6649          DEC     ECX
8757 EBEB          JMP     8744

8759 668BCA        MOV     ECX,EDX
875C 665A          POP     EDX
875E 665B          POP     EBX
8760 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8761 6653          PUSH    EBX
8763 6652          PUSH    EDX
8765 662BD2        SUB     EDX,EDX
8768 678A13        MOV     DL,[EBX]
876B 6683E20F      AND     EDX,+0F
876F 662BC9        SUB     ECX,ECX
8772 678A0B        MOV     CL,[EBX]
8775 C0E904        SHR     CL,04
8778 6683F900      CMP     ECX,+00
877C 0F850800      JNZ     8788
8780 662BC9        SUB     ECX,ECX
8783 665A          POP     EDX
8785 665B          POP     EBX
8787 C3            RET

8788 6603DA        ADD     EBX,EDX
878B 6603D9        ADD     EBX,ECX
878E 67660FBE13    MOVSX   EDX,BYTE PTR [EBX]
8793 6649          DEC     ECX
8795 664B          DEC     EBX
8797 6683F900      CMP     ECX,+00
879B 0F840D00      JZ      87AC
879F 66C1E208      SHL     EDX,08
87A3 678A13        MOV     DL,[EBX]
87A6 664B          DEC     EBX
87A8 6649          DEC     ECX
87AA EBEB          JMP     8797

87AC 668BCA        MOV     ECX,EDX
87AF 665A          POP     EDX
87B1 665B          POP     EBX
87B3 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
87B4 660BC9        OR      ECX,ECX
87B7 0F850100      JNZ     87BC
87BB C3            RET

87BC 6651          PUSH    ECX
87BE 6656          PUSH    ESI
87C0 67833E61      CMP     WORD PTR [ESI],+61   ; ('a')
87C4 0F8C0C00      JL      87D4
87C8 67833E7A      CMP     WORD PTR [ESI],+7A   ; ('z')
87CC 0F8F0400      JG      87D4
87D0 67832E20      SUB     WORD PTR [ESI],+20   ; (a SPACE character)
87D4 6683C602      ADD     ESI,+02
87D8 E2E6          LOOPW   87C0

87DA 665E          POP     ESI
87DC 6659          POP     ECX
87DE C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
87DF 6650          PUSH    EAX
87E1 6651          PUSH    ECX
87E3 668BD0        MOV     EDX,EAX
87E6 66A13202      MOV     EAX,[0232]
87EA 67668D5810    LEA     EBX,10[EAX]
87EF 67034304      ADD     AX,04[EBX]
87F3 67668D4010    LEA     EAX,10[EAX]
87F8 668BDA        MOV     EBX,EDX
87FB E844F9        CALL    8142 

87FE 660BC0        OR      EAX,EAX
8801 0F840500      JZ      880A
8805 6659          POP     ECX
8807 6659          POP     ECX
8809 C3            RET

880A 66A13602      MOV     EAX,[0236]
880E 660BC0        OR      EAX,EAX
8811 0F850800      JNZ     881D
8815 6659          POP     ECX
8817 6659          POP     ECX
8819 6633C0        XOR     EAX,EAX
881C C3            RET

; ---------------------------------------------------------
881D 668B163602    MOV     EDX,[0236]
8822 67668D5210    LEA     EDX,10[EDX]
8827 67668B4218    MOV     EAX,18[EDX]
882C 6633D2        XOR     EDX,EDX
882F 66F7366E02    DIV     DWORD PTR [026E]
8834 6633F6        XOR     ESI,ESI
8837 6650          PUSH    EAX
8839 6656          PUSH    ESI
883B 6658          POP     EAX
883D 665E          POP     ESI
883F 663BC6        CMP     EAX,ESI
8842 0F843A00      JZ      8880
8846 6656          PUSH    ESI
8848 6640          INC     EAX
884A 6650          PUSH    EAX
884C 6648          DEC     EAX
884E E81BFE        CALL    866C 

8851 72E8          JB      883B
8853 E8EBFD        CALL    8641 

8856 665A          POP     EDX
8858 665E          POP     ESI
885A 6659          POP     ECX
885C 665B          POP     EBX
885E 6653          PUSH    EBX
8860 6651          PUSH    ECX
8862 6656          PUSH    ESI
8864 6652          PUSH    EDX
8866 66A14602      MOV     EAX,[0246]
886A 67668D4018    LEA     EAX,18[EAX]
886F E8D0F8        CALL    8142 

8872 660BC0        OR      EAX,EAX
8875 74C4          JZ      883B
8877 6659          POP     ECX
8879 6659          POP     ECX
887B 6659          POP     ECX
887D 6659          POP     ECX
887F C3            RET

; ---------------------------------------------------------
8880 6659          POP     ECX
8882 6659          POP     ECX
8884 6633C0        XOR     EAX,EAX
8887 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8888 6651            PUSH    ECX
888A 6650            PUSH    EAX
888C 66B805000000    MOV     EAX,00000005
8892 1E              PUSH    DS
8893 07              POP     ES
8894 668BF9          MOV     EDI,ECX
8897 E88DFD          CALL    8627

889A 668BC1          MOV     EAX,ECX
889D 66BB20000000    MOV     EBX,00000020
88A3 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
88A9 66BA00000000    MOV     EDX,00000000
88AF E833F8          CALL    80E5

88B2 665B            POP     EBX
88B4 6659            POP     ECX
88B6 6685C0          TEST    EAX,EAX
88B9 0F851500        JNZ     88D2
88BD 668BC1          MOV     EAX,ECX

88C0 660FB70E1002    MOVZX   ECX,WORD PTR [0210]    ; "$I30" in Unicode.
88C6 66BA12020000    MOV     EDX,00000212
88CC E816F8          CALL    80E5 

88CF EB33            JMP     8904

88D1 90            NOP

; ---------------------------------------------------
88D2 6633D2        XOR     EDX,EDX
88D5 668BC1        MOV     EAX,ECX
88D8 668BCB        MOV     ECX,EBX
88DB 6650          PUSH    EAX
88DD 6653          PUSH    EBX
88DF E82300        CALL    8905 

88E2 665B          POP     EBX
88E4 665F          POP     EDI
88E6 660BC0        OR      EAX,EAX
88E9 0F841700      JZ      8904
88ED 1E            PUSH    DS
88EE 07            POP     ES
88EF E835FD        CALL    8627 

88F2 668BC7          MOV     EAX,EDI
88F5 660FB70E1002    MOVZX   ECX,WORD PTR [0210]    ; "$I30" in Unicode.
88FB 66BA12020000    MOV     EDX,00000212
8901 E8E1F7          CALL    80E5 

8904 C3              RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8905 6652            PUSH    EDX
8907 6651            PUSH    ECX
8909 66BB20000000    MOV     EBX,00000020
890F 66B900000000    MOV     ECX,00000000
8915 66BA00000000    MOV     EDX,00000000
891B E8C7F7          CALL    80E5 

891E 660BC0        OR      EAX,EAX
8921 0F846300      JZ      8988
8925 668BD8        MOV     EBX,EAX
8928 1E            PUSH    DS
8929 07            POP     ES
892A 668B3E1A02    MOV     EDI,[021A]
892F 6633C0        XOR     EAX,EAX
8932 E859F8        CALL    818E 

8935 1E            PUSH    DS
8936 07            POP     ES
8937 668B1E1A02    MOV     EBX,[021A]
893C 6659          POP     ECX
893E 665A          POP     EDX
8940 2666390F      CMP     ES:[BX],ECX
8944 0F850C00      JNZ     8954
8948 2666395708    CMP     ES:[BX+08],EDX
894D 0F843100      JZ      8982
8951 EB13          JMP     8966

8953 90            NOP

8954 2666833FFF      CMP     DWORD PTR ES:[BX],-01
8959 0F842F00        JZ      898C
895D 26837F0400      CMP     WORD PTR ES:[BX+04],+00
8962 0F842600        JZ      898C
8966 26660FB74704    MOVZX   EAX,WORD PTR ES:[BX+04]
896C 03D8            ADD     BX,AX
896E 8BC3            MOV     AX,BX
8970 250080          AND     AX,8000
8973 74CB            JZ      8940
8975 8CC0            MOV     AX,ES
8977 050008          ADD     AX,0800
897A 8EC0            MOV     ES,AX
897C 81E3FF7F        AND     BX,7FFF
8980 EBBE            JMP     8940

8982 26668B4710    MOV     EAX,ES:[BX+10]
8987 C3            RET

8988 6659          POP     ECX
898A 665A          POP     EDX
898C 6633C0        XOR     EAX,EAX
898F C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8990 6650          PUSH    EAX
8992 6651          PUSH    ECX
8994 668BC7        MOV     EAX,EDI
8997 66C1E804      SHR     EAX,04
899B 06            PUSH    ES
899C 59            POP     CX
899D 03C8          ADD     CX,AX
899F 51            PUSH    CX
89A0 07            POP     ES
89A1 6683E70F      AND     EDI,+0F
89A5 6659          POP     ECX
89A7 6658          POP     EAX
89A9 C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
89AA 60            PUSHA
89AB 06            PUSH    ES
89AC BEBD0D        MOV     SI,0DBD
89AF BF0020        MOV     DI,2000
89B2 1E            PUSH    DS
89B3 07            POP     ES
89B4 B90D00        MOV     CX,000D

89B7 90            NOP

89B8 F3A5          REP     MOVSW
89BA 07            POP     ES
89BB 61            POPA
89BC C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; Not sure what these areas are used for! May not be code! Appear to never be called.
89BD 0123              ADD     [BP+DI],SP
89BF 45                INC     BP
89C7 BA9876            MOV     DX,7698
89CA 54                PUSH    SP
89CB 3210              XOR     DL,[BX+SI]
89CD F0                LOCK    (unused)
89CE E1D2              LOOPZW  89A2
89D0 C3                RET
89D1 0000          ADD     [BX+SI],AL
89D3 0000          ADD     [BX+SI],AL
89D5 2020          AND     [BX+SI],AH
; ===================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
89D7 60            PUSHA
89D8 8B361820      MOV     SI,[2018]
89DC 268A05        MOV     AL,ES:[DI]
89DF 8804          MOV     [SI],AL
89E1 47            INC     DI
89E2 46            INC     SI
89E3 66FF061420    INC     DWORD PTR [2014]
89E8 81FE6020      CMP     SI,2060
89EC 7506          JNZ     89F4
89EE E85B00        CALL    8A4C 

89F1 BE2020        MOV     SI,2020
89F4 E2E6          LOOPW   89DC

89F6 89361820      MOV     [2018],SI
89FA 61            POPA
89FB C3            RET
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
;                    S U B R O U T I N E
89FC 6660        PUSHAD
89FE 8B361820    MOV     SI,[2018]
8A02 B080        MOV     AL,80
8A04 8804        MOV     [SI],AL
8A06 46          INC     SI
8A07 32C0        XOR     AL,AL
8A09 81FE6020    CMP     SI,2060
8A0D 7506        JNZ     8A15
8A0F E83A00      CALL    8A4C 

8A12 BE2020      MOV     SI,2020
8A15 81FE5820    CMP     SI,2058
8A19 75E9        JNZ     8A04
8A1B 6633C0      XOR     EAX,EAX
8A1E 66A35820    MOV     [2058],EAX
8A22 66A11420    MOV     EAX,[2014]
8A26 66C1E003    SHL     EAX,03
8A2A 660FC8      BSWAP   EAX
8A2D 66A35C20    MOV     [205C],EAX
8A31 E81800      CALL    8A4C 

8A34 BB0020      MOV     BX,2000
8A37 668B07      MOV     EAX,[BX]
8A3A 660FC8      BSWAP   EAX
8A3D 668907      MOV     [BX],EAX
8A40 83C304      ADD     BX,+04
8A43 81FB3420    CMP     BX,2034
8A47 75EE        JNZ     8A37
8A49 6661        POPAD
8A4B C3          RET
;         E N D     O F       S U B R O U T I N E 
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
;                    S U B R O U T I N E
8A4C 6660            PUSHAD
8A4E BB2020          MOV     BX,2020
8A51 668B07          MOV     EAX,[BX]
8A54 660FC8          BSWAP   EAX
8A57 668907          MOV     [BX],EAX
8A5A 83C304          ADD     BX,+04
8A5D 81FB6020        CMP     BX,2060
8A61 75EE            JNZ     8A51
8A63 BB0020          MOV     BX,2000
8A66 668B0F          MOV     ECX,[BX]
8A69 668B5704        MOV     EDX,[BX+04]
8A6D 668B7708        MOV     ESI,[BX+08]
8A71 668B7F0C        MOV     EDI,[BX+0C]
8A75 668B6F10        MOV     EBP,[BX+10]
8A79 BB2020          MOV     BX,2020
8A7C C7061A20300F    MOV     WORD PTR [201A],0F30
8A82 C6061C2014      MOV     BYTE PTR [201C],14

8A87 90            NOP

8A88 53              PUSH    BX
8A89 8B1E1A20        MOV     BX,[201A]
8A8D FF17            CALL    WORD PTR [BX]

8A8F 66034702        ADD     EAX,[BX+02]
8A93 5B              POP     BX
8A94 6603E8          ADD     EBP,EAX
8A97 66032F          ADD     EBP,[BX]
8A9A 668BC1          MOV     EAX,ECX
8A9D 66C1C005        ROL     EAX,05
8AA1 6603C5          ADD     EAX,EBP
8AA4 668BEF          MOV     EBP,EDI
8AA7 668BFE          MOV     EDI,ESI
8AAA 668BF2          MOV     ESI,EDX
8AAD 66C1C61E        ROL     ESI,1E
8AB1 668BD1          MOV     EDX,ECX
8AB4 668BC8          MOV     ECX,EAX
8AB7 668B07          MOV     EAX,[BX]
8ABA 66334708        XOR     EAX,[BX+08]
8ABE 66334720        XOR     EAX,[BX+20]
8AC2 66334734        XOR     EAX,[BX+34]
8AC6 66D1C0          ROL     EAX,1
8AC9 66894740        MOV     [BX+40],EAX
8ACD 83C304          ADD     BX,+04
8AD0 FE0E1C20        DEC     BYTE PTR [201C]
8AD4 75B2            JNZ     8A88
8AD6 83061A2006      ADD     WORD PTR [201A],+06
8ADB 813E1A20480F    CMP     WORD PTR [201A],0F48
8AE1 759F            JNZ     8A82
8AE3 BB0020          MOV     BX,2000
8AE6 66010F          ADD     [BX],ECX
8AE9 66015704        ADD     [BX+04],EDX
8AED 66017708        ADD     [BX+08],ESI
8AF1 66017F0C        ADD     [BX+0C],EDI
8AF5 66016F10        ADD     [BX+10],EBP
8AF9 6661            POPAD
8AFB C3              RET
;         E N D     O F       S U B R O U T I N E 
; ==============================================================================================

; What are the following bytes used for?                May be only DATA; or even garbage? 
8AFC 668BC6        MOV     EAX,ESI
8AFF 6633C7        XOR     EAX,EDI
8B02 6623C2        AND     EAX,EDX
8B05 6633C7        XOR     EAX,EDI
8B08 C3            RET
8B09 668BC2        MOV     EAX,EDX
8B0C 6633C6        XOR     EAX,ESI
8B0F 6633C7        XOR     EAX,EDI
8B12 C3            RET
8B13 6653          PUSH    EBX
8B15 668BC2        MOV     EAX,EDX
8B18 6623C6        AND     EAX,ESI
8B1B 668BDA        MOV     EBX,EDX
8B1E 6623DF        AND     EBX,EDI
8B21 660BC3        OR      EAX,EBX
8B24 668BDE        MOV     EBX,ESI
8B27 6623DF        AND     EBX,EDI
8B2A 660BC3        OR      EAX,EBX
8B2D 665B          POP     EBX
8B2F C3            RET
8B30 FC            CLD
8B31 0E            PUSH    CS
8B32 99            CWD
8B33 7982          JNS     8AB7
8B35 5A            POP     DX
8B36 090F          OR      [BX],CX
8B38 A1EBD9        MOV     AX,[D9EB]
8B3B 6E            OUTSB
8B3C 130F          ADC     CX,[BX]
8B42 090F          OR      [BX],CX
8B45 C162CA
; ==============================================================================================

; ============================ S U B R O U T I N E =============================================
8B48 06            PUSH    ES
8B49 1E            PUSH    DS
8B4A 6660          PUSHAD
8B4C 6633DB        XOR     EBX,EBX
8B4F B800BB        MOV     AX,BB00
8B52 CD1A          INT     1A

8B54 6623C0            AND     EAX,EAX
8B57 0F85BB00          JNZ     8C16
8B5B 6681FB54435041    CMP     EBX,41504354		; "APCT" which is: "TCPA".
8B62 0F85B000          JNZ     8C16
8B66 81F90201          CMP     CX,0102
8B6A 0F82A800          JB      8C16
8B6E 6661              POPAD

8B70 90            NOP

8B71 1F            POP     DS
8B72 07            POP     ES
8B73 06            PUSH    ES
8B74 1E            PUSH    DS
8B75 6660          PUSHAD
8B77 67807B0800    CMP     BYTE PTR 08[EBX],00
8B7C 0F850C00      JNZ     8B8C
8B80 67668D5310    LEA     EDX,10[EBX]
8B85 67668B0A      MOV     ECX,[EDX]
8B89 EB25          JMP     8BB0

8B8B 90            NOP

8B8C 67668D5310        LEA     EDX,10[EBX]
8B91 67668B4A28        MOV     ECX,28[EDX]
8B96 6681F900000800    CMP     ECX,00080000
8B9D 0F830C00          JAE     8BAD
8BA1 67668B422C        MOV     EAX,2C[EDX]
8BA6 6623C0            AND     EAX,EAX
8BA9 0F840300          JZ      8BB0
8BAD 6633C9            XOR     ECX,ECX
8BB0 0E                PUSH    CS
8BB1 1F                POP     DS
8BB2 E8F5FD            CALL    89AA 

8BB5 6623C9          AND     ECX,ECX
8BB8 0F843200        JZ      8BEE
8BBC 66BA00800000    MOV     EDX,00008000
8BC2 663BCA          CMP     ECX,EDX
8BC5 0F861F00        JBE     8BE8
8BC9 662BCA          SUB     ECX,EDX
8BCC 06              PUSH    ES
8BCD 6651            PUSH    ECX
8BCF 6657            PUSH    EDI
8BD1 6652            PUSH    EDX
8BD3 668BCA          MOV     ECX,EDX
8BD6 E8B7FD          CALL    8990 

8BD9 E8FBFD          CALL    89D7 

8BDC 665A          POP     EDX
8BDE 665F          POP     EDI
8BE0 6659          POP     ECX
8BE2 07            POP     ES
8BE3 6603FA        ADD     EDI,EDX
8BE6 EBDA          JMP     8BC2

8BE8 E8A5FD        CALL    8990 

8BEB E8E9FD        CALL    89D7 

8BEE E80BFE        CALL    89FC 

8BF1 0E              PUSH    CS
8BF2 07              POP     ES
8BF3 66BB54435041    MOV     EBX,41504354		; "APCT" which is: "TCPA".
8BF9 66BF00200000    MOV     EDI,00002000
8BFF 66B914000000    MOV     ECX,00000014
8C05 66B807BB0000    MOV     EAX,0000BB07
8C0B 66BA0A000000    MOV     EDX,0000000A
8C11 6633F6          XOR     ESI,ESI
8C14 CD1A            INT     1A

8C16 6661          POPAD

8C18 90            NOP

8C19 1F            POP     DS
8C1A 07            POP     ES
8C1B C3            RET

8C1C A0F901        MOV     AL,[01F9]
8C1F E94BF1        JMP     7D6D

8C22 A0FA01        MOV     AL,[01FA]
8C25 E945F1        JMP     7D6D
; ==============================================================================================

Memory Location 0000:8C27 is the last byte of the BOOTMGR Section's "Bootstrap" code.  

This page is still under construction . . . .

First Published: July 31, 2015 (31.07.2015).
Updated: 31 JUL 2015 (31.07.2015); there were many updates during AUG 2015 (08.2015).
Last Update: 30 AUG 2015 (30.08.2015). [ There will be many updates during September as well!]


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